Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Volume 68. Number 1/2010

An achievement and lesson of democratic revolution
Bat-Uul E. The Parliament Member

Main peculiarity of this epoch is that Mongolians can accomplish their democratic revolution without a forcing. The Congress of the USA has been enchanted Mongolian people’s revolution without an aggression, and had adopted a resolution that Mongolians had accomplished a revolution which had been an example for the world. Also European Parliament had adopted a resolution with same content. It’s pleasant to keep in mind that they not only had adopted resolutions, but also they had started to support our country which had entered immediately into democratic way. In my opinion, main issue is that the leaders of democratic force had kept to the principle to accomplish a revolution without an aggression.
Western values of democracy and Mongolia: To define comparative tendency by international criterions 
Davis Sneat, Cambridge University
I would like to argue that an analysis of the term “democracy” is not perfect and then we have to treat it in a view of ”ethnography” as say social anthropologists, and to research the methods of different politicians and researchers on using this term in practice. Any political system considered as western democratic countries haven’t appeared in a blink of an eye. They all have developed, and still they have been developing. This is a result of broad political culture and constantly changing historical and accidental process which is forming the political structure, its condition for existence by definite events, crisis and harmony. Indeed, an attempt of westerners to measure democracy, and such activities have been opening methods and forms, inseparably linked with indisputable concept and values, required by political regime with values’ system, and which has been formulated by Pierre Bourdieu as “knowledge based on common hopes and beliefs.

Civilization basic of Russian – Mongolian relations
Jeleznyakov А.С.  A professor the Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation
Last twenty years of Mongolian democratic reforms and changes have influenced positively keeping Russian significant role in the Far East, have led our relations from joint isolated position under condition of “cold war” into international, open, multilateral, more new and active level. 
 I wished to develop the theme of this report in a way to research basic factor and dynamics on correlation of Mongolian – Russian civilization.

Democratizing process and Mongolia
Ganbat Damba (PhD) Director of APE
An opportunity to realize freedom and independence kept at Mongolians’ hearts for several hundred years has become true at the end of the 20-th century when democratic process has been developed in Mongolia. It has already passed 20 years after the first peaceful meeting. Competitive election with participation of numerous parties has become usual phenomenon, an idea of social regime has been developing that had made over human right and peace into the values by democratic Constitution. As other countries with basic change of political regime through the third democratic wave involving the whole world we have been confronted with common and specific   experiences of this transition. Next questions have been the real issues to what we have to pay an attention: how has this democratizing process been developing In Mongolia, what is the quality of democracy, what factors have been defining this process and how have they been influencing on it, what is our peculiarity in comparison with process held in other countries.

Not imagined success of Mongolian democratic transferring:
Comparing with Central Asian countries after Soviet Union
Stsolantai B. Scientist and researcher of Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Preliminary factors required for transferring to democracy, as researchers consider, hadn’t been completed not quit yet in 1990 in Mongolia, when communist regime had been failed. According to normal criterions of political sciences there almost hadn’t been possibility for democracy’s developing in Mongolia, or it had been extremely not enough.  
1/ There hadn’t been an extensive wealth in Mongolia, which had been in east and southeast Asian countries with bigger economy where process of intensive reforms and changes had been an incitement to transferring from authoritarian regime to democracy.  
2/ The reasons that enterprises had been exceeding completely and powerful private sector hadn’t been developing in Mongolia had been hampering an appearance of social independent middle class which could be key factor for democracy as in South Korea and Taiwan.
3/ On account on that the public organizations established by communist regime had been depriving the space for  an appearance of independent nongovernmental organizations independent, experienced civic society hadn’t been formed.   
4/ There hadn’t been an experience for developing democracy of contemporary parliament before that communist regime has formed in Mongolia.  
5/ To note at the conclusion that strong opposition force has been missed, and historical experience against communism has been insufficient in Mongolia.

The selected essays in an essay writing competition announced by the Academy of political Education on the theme “Democracy in our lives” between the students and pupils of the branch provinces.

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