Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Volume 42. Number 1/2003

The journal “Shine Toli” publishes papers presented at the conference organised for an occasion of the 10th’s year celebration of the Political Education Academy (PEA).

Doctor M. Enkhsaikhan, the Editor in Chief of the “Mongol times” newspaper presented paper named as “Changes in the social and political life of Mongolia and its future”. He noted big changes in the social and political life took place in Mongolia. Among all many party were created, people now elects the state of Mongolia in accordance with democratic principles, evenly allocated state authority, but main achievement of the last decade was that people of Mongolia left a dogmatism and choose the way of the open society, to develop social life in the future. The choice of methodology for studying the evolution of the democracy development in Mongolia is a matter of significance.
Following are the issues facing politics in this country:

  1. There are still controversies on a role of the state in Mongolia
  2. The mentality of society is still vulnerable to be influenced by the socialist ideas
  3. Development of the political parties play a key role in further development of the democracy in the society
  4. Average level of education of the decision makers in Mongolia is going to be lower
  5. People of Mongolia needs an idea under which all people can come together and may serve as a guide
Doctor A. Tsanjid, Minister of Education, Culture and Science presented a paper titled “Nature of the State in Mongolian Culture and Civilisation”. The paper discusses historic nature of the state in detail. The author describes a specific of understanding the State in Mongolia as the State shall help to and care about its citizen, the citizen shall obey and respect the State. In the western mentality an individual interest is more dominated, but in Mongolia people takes term the Citizen, the State and the Government in their interrelation. It is also Mongolian custom value relevance to the place they born and their family at high. Because Mongols value the State, the Government and the citizenship equally it has reflected in the concept of discipline and human rights. A Mongolian way of taking a decision is the example of this tradition of the Mongolian state. The paper brought many examples of this statement and discusses the analysis openly. Further it has described organisation and structure of the State in Mongolia. Since the time of the Chinggis khaan it has kept as tradition the principles including Government actions shall comply “In-Yan” and ethical consistency, an initiation of the action shall go through the State principles.

Doctor Kh.Lundendorj, Deputy Director of the Law School of the National University of Mongolia, presented a paper “Issues on evolution in creating the Government of the Law”. The paper briefly describes the history of the Government of the Law development in Europe and points out importance of the political, legal and economic environment in which we are adopting this idea. He stressed that socialist regime does not established a foundations of the Government of the Law and only the last Constitution brought us to the society governed by the law and, in which, the state authority is allocated, independent court justice is maintained, the Constitutional protection was introduced and the Law can be made only through parliament. These achievements are the major success of the last decade in this country. However, the full settlement of the Government of the Law in Mongolia is not a near future. The author brought several examples, which proves that classical pattern of the Government of the Law is not performed and the evolution the development is, also not working dynamically in Mongolia.

Doctor D.Altai, a member of the Parliament presented a paper “The achievements in the civil society and parliamentarian rights”. The paper devoted to the problems of the defining directions of the development of modern parliament and the ways of supervising the Government activities by the Parliament. As a member of the Parliament she evaluated now days parliamentary contributions to building up the democracy in the Parliament. For instance, the project of strengthening a Democratic Parliament began to operate from 2001 and she believes that the transparency, internal control, and the system of responsibilities of the Mongolian Parliament will be improved and its credibility can gain much via increased level of the public participation in the law making process. She also describes wide range of the tools to communicate with the public, used in the parliament such as public hearing, “think tank” or fifth government, surveying, open discussion, and the ways to improve efficiency of the member of the Parliament’s work in the elected region or to communicate with the individuals through post and email facilities.

Mr. Peter M.Glukhovsky, the resident representative of the Konrad Adenauer foundation in Mongolia: “The system of political parties in Mongolia – its development, current situation, and future”. The paper consists of four parts each can be titled as a development of the political parties in Mongolia since 1990, an importance of the political parties in the process of democracy, a current situation of the system of political parties in Mongolia, and a prospect of its future development. In the first part author analysed the development of the political parties established since 1990 in its evolution, step by steps. It has, also includes the analysis how nationwide election and its results are caused merger of parties, forms coalitions, establishment of a new party by segregation and so on. Next part is devoted to the criteria of the definition of system of parties, sustainable development of a democracy, and a capacity of the reform. Third part touches political parties as a majority in the parliament MPRP and as an opposition Democratic Party, Peoples’ Will and Republican Party and Mongolian Democratic New Socialist party analysed in their advantages and disadvantages with the cross party comparison and relationships. Finally, the author suggested his own a few alternative scenarios for the system of parties’ development.

Doctor G.Chuluunbaatar, advisor to the Parliament Speaker: “Theory of civil society formation and practical issues”. The paper discusses an opportunity to determine civil society formation process by filtering aspects like external environment, influencing factors, internal feeding factors of development and self-developing mechanisms. The author noted that basis of the main social relations could be characterised as traditional type of the society, but about 70 years in the 20th century Mongolia had experimented socialist type, the odd combination some of the features of both traditional and civil societies. However, in the last decade Mongolia is the country which made an irrevocable choice of the civil society in line with the main stream of the world development and determined to take intensive steps toward its formation. The author also expressed his assessment of the civil society formation process in Mongolia.

Doctor D. Ganbat, Executive Director of Political Education Academy “Democracy and changes its value”. A public opinion plays crucial role in an analysis of the level achieved by the democratic activities in Mongolia, its future trend and challenges of the development, and issues of the consolidation of the democracy as whole.

The presentation includes analysis based on the survey conducted by the PEA in last decade. In the analysis he founds, that public values an idea of the democracy still at high but it has given less marks to the real implementation of the democracy. The author also made a comparison with the developments in other countries which had adopted a democracy newly or reestablished.

The presentation reviewed problems facing democracy through the explanation of the separation between the valuation of the democracy support and its implementation or adoption. Thus, public opinion shows extreme importance of adopting a legal authority and developing a civil society which directly related to the assurance of the democracy in the future.

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